An Analysis of Metaphor As Found in English Quotes.


  • Putri Hardiyanti
  • Yusrita Yanti
  • Nova Rina


Metaphor is one of figurative language. Metaphor is a figure of speech which makes
an implicit comparison between two ideas, things, or objects which have some common
characteristics. It means that metaphor is a resemblance of two contradictory objects or ideas
is made based on some common characteristics.People use metaphor to express one thing to
another thing. It is a way to describe something in different way, and it is used to express the
feeling in a new way or even entertaining others.Metaphor is often found in literary works,
such as novel, poem, short story.Similarly, many quotes contain of metaphor. It aims at
making the quotes more interesting and entertaining the readers.Therefore, the purpose of this
research are to find the types of metaphor and functions of metaphor in English Quotes by
famous authors. The writer chooses the informal method since the informal method is a
method of representing the data by using natural language, so the data are explained in words.
The writer elaborates and explains the result of analysis by using ordinary words.The
significance of this research is about what the writer hopes to do in this research related to
improve someone’s knowledge. The writer hopes that this research can enrich reader’s
knowledge about figurative language,one of them is metaphor discussed in this research,
focusing on types and functions of metaphor. The writer also hopes that this research helps
the readers to able interpret the context. In addition, the writer hopes that this research gives
contributions to the next researchers.
According to Ullman (1962, p.78), metaphor is based on the same kind of similarity
or common features. It can be said that metaphor is an expression of comparing one thing to
another which has the same characteristics. Ullman have defined types of metaphor into four
such as anthropomorphic metaphor, animal metaphor, from concrete to abstract metaphor,
and synaesthetic metaphor. Furthermore, Ortony(1975, p.181) has dividedthat at least three
functions that metaphor might serve, they are to express inexpressibility of action, shorten the
language, and show vividness of emotional states.
This research employed descriptive qualitative research. The data for this research are
taken for different English quotes. In this research, the writer taken the data which contain
metaphor found in English quotes. The writer also limits the quotes since it is impossible to
collect all the quotes as the data of analysis. The quotes that are chosen by the writer is
English quotes taken from Instagram user named Atticus in the
The quotes are famous and the writers are famous as wellbased on Ullman and Ortony’s
theorie..In this research the data collected is in form of words which are quotes in English.
The writer did some steps of analyzing the data. First, the writer reads English quotes several
times and observes the quotes that contain metaphor. Second, the writer classified metaphor
into types by using Ullmann theory. Third, the writer uses the theory by Ortony to classify
metaphor into functions. Next, the writer makes an interpretation of the data. Then, the writer
presents the data.
Next, the writer interpret the result of data analysis to get a conclusio and the
technique of collecting data is done by (a) reading English quotes, (b) identifying the English
quotes which contain metaphor, (c) grouping the words or sentences which contain metaphor,
(d) classifying the data based on the types and functions of metaphor, (e) putting all the
collected data in the table.
This study analysed the types and functions of metaphor in English quotes based on
theories of Ullman (1962) and Ortony (1975). From all of the data, it can be seen that all four
types of metaphor, namely; anthropomorphic metaphor, animal metaphor, from concrete to
abstract metaphor, and synaesthetic metaphor as proposed by Ullman (1962) found in English
quotes. The most dominant types that used in English quotes is anthropomorphic metaphor
and animal metaphor.The result of this study are divided into two parts, types and functions
of metaphor. the writer found out that there are four types of metaphor found in English
quotes. The types of metaphor are anthropomorphic, animal, from concrete to abstract, and
synaesthetic metaphor.The writer found nineteen anthropomorphic metaphors, sixteen animal
metaphors, thirteen from concrete to abstract metaphors and two synaesthetic metaphors. The
writer also found that there are three functions of metaphor.
The functions of metaphor are to express the inexpressibility of action, shorten the
language and vividness of emotional states. The writer found twenty one functions on
expressing the inexpressibility of action, fifteen on shorten the language and twenty four
functions on vividness of emotional states. In all of the quotes can be found life quotes 30 ,
love quotes 17 , motivational quotes 2 and quotes about family 1, it can be said quotes about
life is many found in the data. Since life quotes more found in metaphor quotes because it
have so many figurative word in the data. Then, it is found that some of the quotes are belong
to some cultures such as Japanese, American, and Indonesian cultures and most of the quotes
are universal.Love quotes are mostly universal, these are stated by KhaledHosseini, A.R
Asher, JmStrom, Steve Martin, Pinterest, Demi Lovato and Christy Ann Martine. In addition,
there is one quote which is love and cultural stated by Cornycernik Ash.Then, life quotes
which are universal stated by Roman Payne, Jim Butcher, J.K. Rowling, RichardKadrey.
Meanwhile, life quotes that are cultural stated by Stephen King and Arthur J. Lamb.
Keywords: Metaphor,Anthropomorphic,Synaesthetic, Vividness

Author Biography

Putri Hardiyanti

Jurusan Sastra Asia Timur